Investigating Indian ESL Learners’ Silent Behaviour in Response to Oral Tasks in Online and Offline Classes

(1) * Suvarna Lakshmi Mail (The English and Foreign Languages University, Tarnaka, India, India)
(2) Udaya Mutyala Mail (The English and Foreign Languages University, Tarnaka, India, India)
(3) Ramamuni Reddy Mail (The English and Foreign Languages University, Tarnaka, India, India)
*corresponding author

Abstract


As teachers and researchers, we are intrigued by learner silence and wonder how to understand silence in the classroom, particularly when silence prevails as we request a response to an oral task. In Indian ESL contexts, reasons for learner silence are less investigated as it is considered juxtaposed to classroom interaction. This study explored reasons for undergraduate level learner silence in online and offline language classrooms in relation to teacher questioning. It further tried to surface the reasons for learners’ silent behaviour. Though the nature of the study is qualitative, as the data collected is from 125 students, it is quantified. The implications of the study suggest that online and offline teachers focus on the quality of speaking tasks in the classroom with a better understanding of learners’ silent behaviour and prudent planning of classroom interaction activities resulting in effective learning.  


Keywords


Learner silence; Online and offline learning; Teacher’s questions; Interaction

   

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31763/jsse.v1i2.24
      

Article metrics

10.31763/jsse.v1i2.24 Abstract views : 141 | PDF views : 28

   

Cite

   

Full Text

Download

References


Bao, D. (2014). Understanding Silence and Reticence: Nonverbal participation in Second Language Acquisition. London & New York: Bloomsbury.

Bao, D. & Ye, Y. (2020). Investigating learner's silent and verbal responses to tasks. International Journal of Teaching and Education 4(1), 61-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22437/ijolte.v4i1.10469

Bao, D. (2021). Silence is seen through different lenses. Journal of Silence Studies in Education,1(1), 1-8.

Bates, A.W. (2015) Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Designing Teaching and Learning. Vancouver BC: Tony Bates Associates Ltd.

Beaudoin, M. F.(2008). Reflections on seeking the 'invisible' online learner. In J. Visser, & M. Visser-Valfrey (Eds.), Learners in a changing learning landscape: Reflections from a dialogue on new roles and expectations (pp.213--226). London: Springer, 2008.

Cole, J. G., & McCroskey, J. C. (2000). Temperament and socio-communicative orientation. Communication Research Reports, 17, 105-114.

Cotterill, J. (2005). ‘You do not have to say anything . . ..’: Instructing the jury on the defendant’s right to silence in the English criminal justice system.Multilingual 24: 7–24.

Delima, E. M. (2012). A reticent in the classroom: A consequence of the art of questioning. Asian EFL Journal, (60), 51-69.

Dhyan, S. (2021). Culture of Silence: A case study of barriers to two-way communication. Academicia: An International Multidisciplinary Research Journal. 11(3).2416-2421.DOI : 10.5958/2249-7137.2021.01004.1

Frenzel, A. C.,Goetz, T., Stephens, E. J., & Jacob, B. (2009). Antecedents and effects of teachers’ emotional experiences: An integral perspective and empirical test. In P. A. Schutz & M.Zembylas (Eds), Advances in teacher emotion research: The impact on teachers’ lives. (pp. 129-152). New York: Springer

Fritschner, L. (2000). Inside the Undergraduate College Classroom: Faculty and s differ on the Meaning of Participation. The Journal of Higher Education. 71(3), 342-362.

Gradinaru, C. (2011). Virtual Communities: A New Sense of Social Intersection. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 13(1), 21-35.

Gradinaru, C. (2016). The Technological Expansion of Sociability: Virtual Communities as Imagined Communities Academicus International Scientific Journal 14(2), 181-190 DOI:10.7336/academics.2016.14.13

Howard, J.R. & Henney, A.L. (1998) Participation and Instructor Gender in the Mixed-Age College Classroom, The Journal of Higher Education, 69(4), 384-405, DOI: 10.1080/00221546.1998.11775141

Jaworski, A. (2005). Introduction: Silence in institutional and intercultural contexts. Multilingual-Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication. 24(1-2), 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/mult.24.1-2.1

King, J. (2013). Silence in the second language classroom. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

King, J. (2014). Fear of the true self: Social anxiety and the silent behaviour of Japanese learners of English. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The Impact of Self-concept on Language Learning (pp. 232-249). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Liu, M. (2005). Reticence in oral English language classrooms: A case study in China. TESL Reporter, (38), 1-16.

Liu, M. & Jackson, J. (2009). Reticence in Chinese EFL s at varied proficiency levels.TESL Canada Journal 26(2). [Electronic Version]. Retrieved June 06, 2022, from http://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/415/245.

Meyer, K. R. (2007), engagement in the classroom: An examination of silence and participation. In annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL

Maher, K. (2021). Reframing silence: Insights into language learners’ thoughts about silence and speaking-related anxiety. Journal of Silence Studies in Education, 1(1), 32-47.

Nakane, I. (2005) Negotiating silence and speech in the classroom. Multilingual, 24(2), 75-100. https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.24.1-2.75.

Smith, L., & King, J. (2018). Silence in the foreign language classroom: The emotional challenges for L2 teachers. In J. D. M. Agudo (Ed.), Emotions in second language teaching (pp. 323-340). Dordrecht: Springer.

Tatar, S. (2005). Why Keep Silent? The Classroom Participation Experiences among Non-Native English Speaking s. Language and Intercultural Communication. 5(3). 284 – 293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14708470508668902

Teng, M. H. (2009). Teacher factors in the college English classroom. Heilongjiang Research on Higher Education, (4), 146-148.

Tsou, W. (2005). Improving Speaking Skills Through Instruction in Oral Classroom Participation. Foreign Language Annals; 38(1). 46-55.

Tsui, A. (1996). Reticence and anxiety in second language learning. In K. M. Bailey & D. Nunan (eds.). Voices from the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Verma, S. (2017). Silence as Discourse Marker in Multilingual Classrooms in India. Language and Language Teaching. 6(2)12

Xin, C., & Feenberg, A. (2006, Fall). Pedagogy in Cyberspace: The Dynamics of Online Discourse. Journal of Distance Education, 21(2), 1-25


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Suvarna Lakshmi, Udaya Mutyala, Ramamuni Reddy



Journal of Silence Studies in Education


Published by Association for Scientific Computing Electronics and Engineering (ASCEE)
Website: https://jsse.ascee.org/index.php/jsse/index
email: jsse@ascee.org
P-ISSN: 2808-1005
Address
: 29 Ancora Imparo Way, Clayton VIC 3800, Australia


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View JSSE Stats